Eni advances USD750M biofuel refinery conversion in Livorno
Photo courtesy of Eni

Eni advances USD750M biofuel refinery conversion in Livorno

Eni has confirmed plans to redevelop its Livorno refinery in Italy into a 500,000-metric-ton-per-year biorefinery to produce renewable diesel, naphtha and bio-LPG. The USD750 million project advances Italy’s biofuel production goals while future-proofing the Livorno site.

The Livorno complex becomes Eni’s third facility to undergo conversion to 100% bio-feedstocks after earlier projects at Porto Marghera, an industrial zone bordering mainland Venice in northeast Italy, and Gela, an industrial port city on Sicily’s southern coast.

Preparations are starting now ahead of a 2026 completion target pending permits.

Upgraded facilities will allow processing of vegetable oils, waste fats and agricultural residues using Eni’s proprietary Ecofining process. Output of hydrotreated vegetable oil fuels will help address Italy’s rising diesel fuel demand, amidst more stringent European emissions rules.

Eni’s biorefining capacity already leads Europe at 1.65 million metric tons annually. But an expected 65% growth in global HVO demand from 2024-2028 is spurring further investments. HVO stands for hydrotreated vegetable oil. It is a type of renewable diesel fuel made by hydrogenating oils from vegetable sources like palm, canola, soybean, and waste cooking oils.

Eni ultimately aims to reach over 5 million tons of biofuel capacity by the end of this decade.

The transition enables continued operations and employment at Livorno. To initiate the transformation, Eni has halted crude oil imports and idled the site’s lubricant and petroleum production units. Fuel distribution will tap import terminals to meet regional needs until the project’s competition.